Engine Technical Review: An overview of engine technology advances
There is a clear theme of sustainability across the Engine Technical Review, with most OEMs now having approved hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as a drop-in fuel substitute for their diesel models. Where that’s not possible, older engines can sometimes be made HVO-compliant with minor updates.
But in tandem with new-fuel compatibility, OEMs are continuing to improve overall engine power density. In some cases, smaller engines (both size and displacement) offer power increases over the larger models they replace, while requiring a smaller installation footprint.
Then there are the ‘fuel agnostic’ engine ranges, which will support a variety of liquid and gaseous fuels by pairing a fuel-specific head to a largely standard block. It’s a neat way to hedge your R&D bets, maintaining diesel options while building in products targeted at customers looking to start their new-fuel adventure (we’re looking at you, hydrogen).
Such future-proofing should serve OEM engine companies and their customers well as we collectively move towards the middle and latter portions of the 2020s - a period which promises the introduction of still-tighter emissions regulations around the world.
POWER RANGE (2022 data):
DIESEL: 18 to 3600 kW
GASEOUS FUEL: 60 to 1588 kW
At the Middle East Energy (MEE) trade show, held in Dubai in March this year, Baudouin introduced the new 8M33 Powerkit diesel engine. The 26.1 L V8 turbo model was the latest addition to the M33 high horsepower range. Power output is between 900 and 1125 kVA at engine speeds ranging between 1500 and 1800 rpm.
The 8M33 features a compact ‘power dense’ design that uses a high-pressure common rail fuel injection system (ECU models). The engine is said to return ‘competitive’ fuel consumption. Other features include a cast iron frame-style body structure, one-piece forged crankshaft and split-cap forged steel connecting rods. A 50ᵒC cooling package is offered as standard.
Moving to the marine sector, in September 2022 the company introduced the 6F21 at the Hamburg Trade Fair, a six-cylinder 12.5 L engine. The unit is available as three variants: intermittent duty, 599 kW; light duty, 662 kW; and high performance, 735 kW. All output ratings are measured at 2300 rpm.
Features of the 6F21 include a two-stage turbo, two intercoolers and a high-pressure common rail electronic fuel injection system. These are packaged in what is described as the smallest engine ever released by the company; dimensions are 1470 x 1100 x 1705 mm.
DIESEL: 7.5 to 5700 kW
GASEOUS FUEL: 71 to 3990 kW
In March 2023, Cat introduced the C13D. a new 13 L diesel engine platform designed to achieve best-in-class power density, torque and fuel efficiency in heavy-duty off-highway applications.
The inline six-cylinder platform has eight power ratings, ranging from 340 to 515 kW, while producing up to 3200 Nm of peak torque. The platform offers up to 20% more power and up to 25% more low-speed torque over previous generations of Cat engines in its power class. Additionally, it is designed to operate at up to 12,000 ft of ambient altitude, twice that of legacy Cat engines, and within a temperature range of 60ᵒC and -40ᵒC.
By delivering comparable power and torque to existing 13-, 15- and single-turbo 18 L engine platforms, the C13D offers OEMs the opportunity to downsize, which helps with machine design, assembly and supply chain requirements. Engine-mounted aftertreatment and cooling packs also help to reduce installation and validation costs.
The C13D meets current emissions standards in a series of markets, including EU Stage 5, US Tier 4 Final, China Non-Road 4, Korea Stage 5 and Japan 2014.
The engine is compatible with HVO, B100 distilled biodiesel and B100 standard biodiesel with support from dealers. The architecture is also futureproofed for the introduction of natural gas (methane) and hydrogen fuels.
DIESEL (OFF-HIGHWAY): 37 to 3282 kW
GASEOUS FUEL (OFF-HIGHWAY): 37 to 2000 kW
Cummins reports that it has made ‘further progress’ over 2022 and ’23 in development of its fuel agnostic engine technology. These feature a common engine block using largely common parts with a fuel-specific head unit.
The fuel-agnostic engine technology is part of Cummins’ Destination Zero strategy, which has targeted net-zero emissions by 2050. The programme has also aimed for a 25% reduction in Scope 3 lifetime greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from new-to-market products from 2030, together with a commitment to partner with customer companies to achieve a 55 million-tonne reduction in GHG emissions in the field.
DIESEL: 184 to 1324 kW (Marine)
GASEOUS FUEL: 185 to 2037 kW
In November 2022, Spanish company Mutares completed the acquisition of Siemens Energy Engines. The new amalgamation will operate under the new name of Guascor Energy.
Guascor is a manufacturer of diesel and gaseous-fuel engines used in power generation, cogeneration, waste-to-energy and marine applications.
Recent additions to the product range include the LCMM G-56HM gas engine. Designed to operate on methane (CH4) collected from coal mines, the engine produces 1240 kW at 50 Hz with a mechanical efficiency of 41.7%. Using CH4 as fuel improves mine safety and removes the greenhouse gas from the atmosphere. The engine can operate using fuel with a minimum 9% CH4 content.
Two other gaseous fuel engine ranges, the SL and HM natural gas (methane) engines have been tested and proven compatible with propane, which is noted to be a less expensive alternative. Using the fuel, which requires no change in configuration, the engines can deliver between 315 and 1373 kWb at 50 and 60 Hz. There is also the potential to combine natural gas and propane in any percentage combination.
Guascor has also launched a new on-engine fuel-blending system. This supports the combining of hydrogen with natural gas or biogas in up to a 50/50 ratio. According to the company, the next step is development of a system which can support 100% hydrogen fuel.
HYUNDAI HEAVY INDUSTRIES
DIESEL: 1100 to 20,100 kW
GASEOUS (DUAL) FUEL: 2700 to 21,800 kW
DIESEL/METHANOL: 1600 to 21,800 kW
Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) develops and manufactures a full range of engines under the Himsen brand name. The majority are supplied to shipbuilders for use in commercial vessels.
In December 2022, HHI-EMD (where EMD is the Engine and Machinery Business unit) reported that it had successfully completed factory acceptance testing (FAT) of two Himsen methanol engines (H32DF-LM). The engines were to be delivered to a domestic shipyard and used for electricity generation in a container vessel.
According to HHI-EMD, the Himsen methanol engine is the first four-stroke dual fuel methanol engine, with the capability of selectively using either methanol or diesel. In ‘methanol mode’ the engine uses diesel cycle combustion with electronically-controlled common rail fuel injection to deliver stable high-power performance.
Methanol offers a series of storage/distribution and environmental benefits. It is easy to store and transport at atmospheric pressure. Plus, it can reduce Sox by 99%, NOx by 80% and particulates (PM) by 95%. When sourced from green hydrogen, the carbon-neutral fuel can reduce greenhouse emissions by a combined 95%.
HHI-EMD reported that at time of information issue, it had received orders for 50 sets of Himsen methanol engines. It was also noted that the tech behind the maritime engines is fully transferable to other power sectors, including commercial vehicles, off-highway machinery and generator sets.
GASEOUS FUELS (CNG, LNG): 119 to 3728 kW
GASEOUS FUELS (H2, Natural Gas): 250 to 10,610
In October 2022, INNIO launched its next-generation Jenbacher Type 3F engine. With more than 280,000 hours of operation in the field, the engines are said to return a 2% improvement in fuel efficiency.
The Type 3F delivers electrical efficiency up to 43.2% when operating on pipeline gas. The engine is optimised for reduced emissions and extended oil lifecycle. Already available for 50 Hz applications, ramp-up is now under way for 60 Hz versions. It is a like-for-like replacement for Jenbacher Type 3 engines.
Earlier in 2022, INNIO launched the Jenbacher Type 4 engine (J420 D/E). Features includes a power output increased to 60 kW, a shorter length (-60 cm) and a 1% increase in electrical efficiency. 50 Hz versions are now available, with 60 Hz variants now entering production.
Both the 3F and J420 D/E are ‘Ready for H2’ units, convertible to operation on 100% hydrogen. Optionally, up to 25% H2 can be used in combination with standard gas fuel.
ISOTTA FRASCHINI MOTORI
DIESEL: 320 to 2755 kW
Isotta Fraschini Motori (IFM), part of the Fincantieri ship building group, showcased examples of the company’s V170G Series at MEE 2023 in Dubai, UAE and at Distributed Power Europe (part of the K.EY Energy Transition trade show) in Rimini, Italy.
The 50 Hz example of the new 16V170 G-drive 16-cylinder turbodiesel delivers 2520 kVA, while the 60 Hz variant produces 2755 kVA. Twelve-cylinder versions (12V170 G-drive) produce 1888 kVA (50 Hz) and 2066 kVA (60 Hz).
Both engines are intended for emergency power gen sets, data centre power and industrial applications. A Stage 5-compliant version the 60 Hz engine was showcased, with possible applications extending to containerised power.
The engines are based on the existing IFM models used in naval and marine applications, but with optimised performance for industrial use. For example, the engines feature self-contained radiators and cooling circuits. Other changes include the addition of turbos (one per cylinder bank and the repositioning of maintenance interfaces on one side of the engine.
Looking to the future, IFM is planning to extend the current range with the addition of engines capable of using hydrogen and low-carbon fuels. The H2 variants are expected to be available ‘in three or four years’ for a variety of applications, including rail.
DIESEL: 130 to 4290 kW
Liebherr reports that it has recently made ‘significant investment’ covering development of its hydrogen engine and related test facilities. Prototype engines have been in testing since 2020.
Different injection and combustion technologies, including port fuel injection (PFI) and direct injection (DI) have also been assessed. Prototypes with these features have been running since 2021.
Encouraged by the results using PFI tech, Liebherr has been conducting further R&D on DI technology. In mid-2022, the company launched the H964 four-cylinder engine prototype using DI, which injects hydrogen into the combustion chamber.
DI offers increased combustion efficiency potential and power density, making hydrogen engines a feasible alternative to diesel engines. The 9.0 L H964 has also returned ‘encouraging’ results in terms of CO2 and NOx emissions.
The Liebherr components segment is expecting to start production of hydrogen engines by 2025. In the meantime, the company is researching fuel injection to optimize power density. Several research programmes are currently underway, including a dual fuel engine which can use hydrogen ignited by hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) – or on full HVO.
DIESEL: 110 to 1418 kW
GASEOUS FUEL: 50 to 735 kW
At the 2022 edition of the Cannes Yachting Festival, MAN Engines launched its new V12X engine series. The V12 model has an output of 1618 kW at 2300 rpm. The engine is based on the E3872 stationary gas engine, introduced in late 2021.
Compared with the previous MAN V12-2000 (1471 kW), displacement of the V12X has been increased more than five litres to a total of 30 L (bore: 138 mm, stroke: 165 mm). This produces between 6500 and 7350 Nm of torque.
MAN Engines has approved all marine engines in its current range for use with renewable diesel, including HVO (EN 15940 and ASTM D975).
In addition, the company has supplied two diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines for use in the Hydrocat 48 crew transfer vessel from Windcat Workboats. The 12-cylinder MAN D2862 LE448 engines each have a power output of 749 kW at 2100 rpm. They are certified for IMO Tier 3 emissions using SCR technology.
The conventional diesel engines feature a hydrogen injection system developed by CMB.TECH. Hydrogen is introduced via an adapter for incorporation in the combustion cycle, with the common rail injection parameters optimised for dual fuel operation.
The dual-fuel engine is reported to return average CO2 emissions reductions of 50%, with that increasing to 80% at ‘peak value’. A further advantage, states MAN Engines, is the ease of maintenance, owing to the familiar layout of the diesel engine.
MAN Energy Solutions
Marine diesel oil/marine gas oil: 625 kW to 19200 kW
Gaseous Fuel: 625 kW to 18200 kW
The MAN 49/60DF dual fuel engine was launched at 2022 SMM trade fair in Hamburg and successfully passed Type Approval Test in March 2023.
The most recent addition to MAN ES four-stroke engine portfolio, the dual-fuel engine is capable of running on LNG, diesel and HFO as well as a number of more sustainable fuels including biofuel blends and synthetic natural gas.
In the spring 2022, MAN Energy Solutions reported that the 1,036-TEU container ship ElbBLUE powered by an MAN 8L51/60DF four-stroke engine, had reduced its GHG emissions by 27% by operating on a blend of climate-neutral, synthetic natural gas (SNG) and conventional LNG, compared to LNG alone.
Compared with heavy fuel oil (HFO), GHG emission reduction was even as high as 34%. The data emerged from measurements initially carried out on board the ship in September 2021 when the ElbBLUE became the first container ship worldwide to replace a portion of its bunkered gas fuel (around 50%) with SNG.
MAN PrimeServ, MAN Energy Solutions’ after-sales brand, announced in July 2022 that it is offering customers the opportunity to retrofit older MAN 48/60 marine engines to state-of-the-art MAN 51/60 types as part of its new ‘lifecycle upgrade’ offering. The upgrade enables customers to prepare older engines already in service for future, climate-neutral operation. Converted engines will effectively be equivalent technically to newly built MAN 51/60 units and, as a result, achieve significant savings in fuel consumption, CO2 and pollutant emissions, and increase reliability. As a further option, newly converted engines can be upgraded for operation on synthetic fuels for a low premium.
Later in 2022, MAN PrimeServ announced the successful completion of the first lifecycle upgrade for a southern European customer, converting an MAN 18V48/60A power-plant engine with over 100 000 operating hours to a modern MAN 18V51/60 unit.
PrimeServ will implement a further five lifecycle upgrades for the same customer by spring 2023.
Beginning 2023, MAN Energy Solutions announced that it will supply sixteen MAN 18V51/60 dual-fuel engines with a total generating capacity of 311 MW to three new power plants currently under construction in the Republic of Ireland; two are situated near the capital, Dublin, with the third in the midland’s town of Athlone. All three are intended as back-up facilities and designed to compensate for possible fluctuations in the power grid that may arise as a result of the increasing integration of renewable energies.
MAN Energy Solutions announced that it would invest up to €500 million over the following years in its subsidiary, H-TEC Systems, to transform the hydrogen specialist into a mass-producer of PEM electrolyzers as quickly as possible.
MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES GROUP
DIESEL: 4.6 to 5880 kW
GASEOUS FUEL: 315 to 5750 kW
PHOTO: G16NB engine from MHIET.jpg
In March of this year, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Engine and Turbocharger (MHIET) introduced its new SGP M2000, a new natural gas cogeneration system.
The system uses a G16NB 16-cylinder engine. This produces 2000 kW of power and has an electrical efficiency of 44.3%. According to MHIET, this is the highest efficiency for a 2000 kW engine. In addition, the new package required approximately 40% less installation area.
The same engine is used to power the equivalent 1000 kW gas cogeneration system, but new developments have supported a doubling of output. In addition, the efficiency of SGP M2000 is 1.8% better than the 1000 kW variant, helping to reduce CO2 output.
Improvements to the G16NB engine for the application include the use of steel pistons to support increased pressure, improved fuel combustion the uses a two-stage turbocharging system in combination with the Miller cycle and optimised ignition timing.
To date, SGP M2000 units have accumulated in excess of 50,000 running hours on multiple units, including one at the MHIET power plant in Sagamahira, Japan.
DIESEL: 400 to 4500 kW
PHOTO: MWM TCG 3020.jpg
MWM has added a new variant to its TCG 3020 gas engine series. With an electrical output of 2 MW, the TCG 3020 is suitable for use with 50 Hz grids (island or parallel mode). Suitable for use with natural gas and biogas, it is also available as a container version.
The engine is said to return up to 44.4% electrical efficiency, with a total high-performance reaching 87.7% (RV configuration, natural gas, 87.9%; XV configuration, biogas, 84.7%).
Additionally, MWM has introduced a retrofit SCR aftertreatment kit to achieve emissions compliance for gas turbines. Also available is the MWM Premium U 32.5 urea solution for SCR systems. This is approved for use in MWM CHP plants and cogeneration power plants.
Other new releases include MWM Antifreeze Advanced, a silicate-free coolant with inhibitor tech for frost and corrosion protection. The coolant is available in a ready-to-use mix for refilling during maintenance operations.
The company has also released its MWM RAM (Remote Asset Monitoring) monitoring system, now available with the TPEM digital plant control package. MWM gas generator sets are delivered ready for RAM activation, with no additional installation work.
Using the system, up to 1000 parameters can be logged and displayed. The system collects data for up to 13 months, allowing analysis of current versus historic performance.
DIESEL: 4 to 2083 kW
At ConExpo 2023, Perkins Engines exhibited a new, integrated diesel-electric hybrid powertrain intended to illustrate how OEM customers can cut development time and related cost when designing new machines.
The end-to-end hybrid powertrain is configurable for a series of off-highway applications. The system features a scalable 48 V battery module, powershift transmission, 20 kW motor/generator unit, invertor and an advanced energy control module.
Across the engine range, Perkins states it has continued to invest in new engine technologies. This includes dual certification for EU Stage 5 and US Tier 4 Final. By optimizing the efficiency of the entire engine, from air intake to exhaust, the company offers a range which features an integrated suite of advanced systems to reduce GHG emissions and deliver improved power density. Engines from the 400 to the 2800 Series are now certified to use lower-carbon fuels which meet industry diesel specifications.
Perkins also showcased its connectivity solutions using hardware to read engine data displayed to the customer as timely insights. For OEMs with their own telematics solutions, an API-based service to receive engine data is included.
In one project, Perkins has been developing an ICE which uses dimethyl ether (rDME), while another has been looking at both ammonia and hydrogen as fuels to decarbonise heavy-duty engines.
POWER SOLUTIONS INTERNATIONAL
DIESEL: 910 to 4291 kW
GASEOUS FUEL: 34 to 1436 kW
PETROL: 34 to 295 kW
In partnership with Chinese engine OEM Weichai, PSI has recently extended its range of diesel engines with the introduction of 66- and 88 L versions. These join the existing lineup of 20-, 40-, and 55-litre diesel engines.
According to PSI, the 66 L version can deliver up to 2700 KWm (1 KWm is equivalent to 1000 W of mechanical power). The 88 L version is rated up to 3600 KWm. Both engines are EPA Tier 2 certified for stationary standby power applications.
PSI is also offering industrial and power system clients a range of new energy products and services. This includes tailoring turnkey solutions, including low- and high-voltage li-ion batteries and other hardware for specific solutions. Also supported by Weichai, the business further involves various other companies with expertise in the field.
ROLLS-ROYCE POWER SYSTEMS
DIESEL (OFF-HIGHWAY): 70 to 10,000 kWm
GASEOUS FUEL (OFF-HIGHWAY): 746 TO 1492 kWm
DIESEL (POWER GEN): 27 to 3250 kWe
GASEOUS FUEL (POWER GEN): 30 to 2535 kWe
From 2023, the mtu Hybrid Propulsion Pack will also be available for mtu Series 2000 and 4000. With propulsion solutions for yachts, ferries, tugs and windfarm support vessels, the system combines diesel engine with electric propulsion to deliver efficiency and local emissions-free cruising.
The mtu Hybrid Propulsion Pack is available with a power range extending from 1119 to 4300 kW (diesel) and 165 to 743 kW (electric). Max power output is 10,000 per vessel.
Rolls-Royce is developing engines in the mtu 1163 and 8000 Series which comply with IMO Tier 3 emissions. From 2025, the engines will be available in all cylinder variants, offering between 4800 and 10,000 kW.
Together with Woodward L’Orange and WTZ Rosslau, Rolls-Royce is continuing work on the MeOHmare project which will deliver marine ICEs capable of using green methanol. Based on the mtu Series 4000, the engine will offer low-emissions, CO2-neutral operation.
Elsewhere, Rolls-Royce is continuing to test hydrogen engines at its Augsburg site. Over the past 18 months, the company has invested about €10 million in test bench modernisation, hydrogen infrastructure and other support measures as part of the ‘Net Zero at Power Systems’ programme.
A series of mtu engines have also been released which are compatible with EN15940 sustainable fuels, including HVO and e-diesel. A series of engines are now available for various applications, including gen sets, marine and rail. Mtu engines for construction machines, agriculture and mining include the Series 1000, 1100, 1300, 1500 and 4000.
HVO is a drop-in replacement for diesel, as confirmed in tests conducted by Rolls-Royce. The fuel delivers comparable maximum power, load acceptance and fuel consumption, without any need for adaptation. Synthetic fuel is also better in long-term storage, making it more attractive for emergency power system operators.
DIESEL: 1498 to 5170 kW
DUAL FUEL: 3060 to 3355 kW
Wabtec manufactures six- and eight-cylinder inline engines, together with V12- and V16-cylinder engines for marine, rail and industrial applications. With engine speeds of 900 or 1000 rpm, there are eight different ranges. All engines are produced at the company’s site near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, which has a capacity of 2700 units per year.
The company offers engines certified to US Tier 4 emissions standards for NOx and particulates, without the need for SCR/urea treatment. Fitted with a DPF system, these are said to be in line with EU Stage 5 emissions levels, allowing ship owners to obtain ABS LEV or BV ULEV certification. The Tier 4 engines are also used in heavy-haul rail applications.
Following the 2019 merger of Wabtec Corporation and GE Transportation to create Wabtec Corporation, the company has gone on to develop a series of new engine technologies.
While the 250 engine series has more than a decade of dual fuel capability, combining diesel fuel and LNG, Wabtec has committed to offering alternative fuel solutions across its L/V250 ranges. This is supported by minimal adaptation being needed for the transition to low/no carbon fuels.
DIESEL: 749 to 20,800 kW
GASEOUS FUEL: 1890 to 20,800 kW
DUAL FUEL: 1890 to 20,800 kW
PHOTO: Wartsila 25 engine.png
Since early 2022, Finnish engine manufacturer Wartsila has launched a series of engines, some featuring tech to support use of low-carbon and carbon-neutral fuels.
Latest additions to the engine line up are the Wartsila 25 and 25DF. Both are medium-speed four-stroke engines. The new engine versions are intended to advance customer decarbonisation efforts, as while they are capable of using diesel, LNG or gas/liquid carbon-neutral fuels, the engines can be upgraded to use carbon-free alternative fuels.
Along those same lines, the Wartsila 32 methanol engine is based on the existing 32 engine range. This multi-fuel model can use methanol, LFO, liquid biofuels and HVO.
In addition, the company has launched the next-generation of its 46, 46F and 50 ranges of medium-speed engines. The 46TS-DF features two-stage turbocharging to deliver improved efficiency and power density.
Also new to the engine range is the 34DF auxiliary engine. With an output of 520 kW per cylinder at 720/750 rpm, these multifuel engines are intended for use as a main or auxiliary engine. They are also capable of supporting diesel-electric propulsion.
DIESEL: 3 to 4500 kW
GASEOUS FUEL: 45 to 63 kW
DUAL FUEL: 800 to 4240 kW
In early 2022, Yanmar announced that it had extended its warranty cover to include the use of EN1594-standard fuels, including gas-to-liquid, biomass-to-liquid and HVO. The renewable fuels can reduce emissions, although there could be minor performance changes due to lower cetane ratings.
After the launch of a test vessel fitted with a 300 kW hydrogen fuel cell, Yanmar Power Technology is now looking to receive type approval for a maritime fuel cell to be introduced in 2023. The tech is part of the company’s move away from fossil fuels, referred to as ‘The Green Challenge 2050’, which will see the company become GHG-free based on recyclable and sustainable resources.